The mountain Ambelos (or Karvounis) is located in the central part of the island. Its highest peak is Profitis Ilias (1063m).
The region is woody and has thickets of coniferous trees, thick-leafed bushes and areas with limestone rocks. The natural vegetation on the mountainous areas of Karvounis, contrary to the majority of the islands of the Aegean Sea, has not been affected by cultivation or grazing. Thus, large stretches of land with natural vegetation have been preserved.
On Karvounis, from an altitude of 700m and above, Black Pine trees are found, and are the dominant species above the altitude of 850m. The Black Pine constitutes a rare type of tree as well as having a specialized use in shipbuilding. It covers 15% of the wooded area of the island.
The springs of Kerkis and Karvounis have created the stream, “Ybittos” (as named by the ancient residents), in the area of Karlovassi, which flows through Meseo, Karlovassi.
On the slopes of Kerkis and Karvounis were the bases of operation of the Democratic Army of Samos. Its fighters resisted, for three whole years, an enemy which outnumbered them many times over and was incomparably better armed.
(The construction of a large dam on the island of Samos with the name “Dam of Karvounis, Samos” has been suggested by the Planning Administration for the E.U. and Agricultural Structures Department of the Ministry of Agriculture. This work is still in its initial stages. A study for the work was submitted to the Ministry of the Environment for the pre-approval of the location, which, however was returned in order to be re-considered in regards to: size of the dam, alternative locations, as well as the viability of the construction of smaller dams with the same or an alternative hydrological basin, which would be more environmentally friendly)