South of village Lekka and in a distance of 4 kilometers, perched on the slopes of mountain Fteria, meaning the foothills of Mount Kerkis, within dense and lush vegetation is the village of Kastania. The first inhabitants of this village, in accordance to the local tradition, were from Epirus. It took its name from the many chestnut trees that existed in the old times in the region.
Today’s inhabitants are engaged in agriculture, mainly with viticulture. In old times their main occupation was the felling of samian timber which was in great demand. From Kastania, the road leads to Marathokampos, where wind turbines are.
North of Kastania, in a place called Agios Panteleimon, were found ancient tombs and within these utensils, a bronze pommel, an iron spear and other findings.
The whole village is an attraction for visitors. The architecture, the vegetation and its squares have a distinct beauty.
The village church celebrates on August 23.
In the area between Lekka and Kastania, is located the church of Agias Triadas (Saint Trinity) which exists since the era of Joseph Georgirini (1672), while Emmanuel Kritikidis considers it as one of the churches that existed prior to the desolation of the island.
Kastaniotes (the people of Kastania) were early associated with the social struggles of the island. The name of Athanasios, son of Dimitris, is found along with their two companions of Logothetis who exiled for their struggles from the island, in 1812.
Kastania has also ‘scarred’ the modern history of Samos. On August 30 1943, the Italians executed in cold-blood 27 local villagers and made an example of Samians for their involvement in the resistance. Kastania is a symbol of the revolutionary history of Samos.